Persuasive Ogt Essay

Passing the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) in Reading and Writing
About This Book
This book will provide you with accurate and complete representation of the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) in reading and the OGT

in writing. Inside are reviews designed to give you the information and strategies you need to do well on these tests. Four

practice tests are provided, two based on the official OGT in reading and two based on the official OGT in writing. The

practice tests contain every type of question you can expect to encounter on the actual tests. Following each practice test

is an answer key with detailed explanations to help you completely understand the test material.
About the Test
Who Takes These Tests, and What Are They Used For?
The OGT is given to all students throughout Ohio beginning in the spring of students' tenth-grade year. It is given to ensure

that graduating students have mastered essential core academic content and skills. The test is given in five content areas:

reading, writing, mathematics, science and social studies. Students who do not pass the OGT in the tenth grade will have four

more opportunities to retake and pass the OGT before the end of their twelfth-grade year.
 The OGT measures achievement in the skills and competencies outlined in Ohio's Academic Content Standards. The OGT in

reading and OGT in writing measure achievement specifically according to the state's English Language Arts (ELA) Academic

Content Standards. The OGT ensures that all graduating students demonstrate at least a tenth-grade proficiency in all five

content areas. Students must pass each test to earn a high school diploma. A student who does not pass all five tests can

still earn a diploma if he or she meets all the following requirements:
• Passed four of the five tests and missed passing the fifth test by no more than 10 points
• Has a 97 percent attendance rate (excluding excused absences) for all four years of high school and no expulsion in

high school
• Has a grade point average of 2.5 out of 4.0 in the subject area missed and completed the curriculum requirement in

the subject area missed
• Has participated in any intervention programs offered by the school and has a
97 percent attendance rate in any program offered outside the normal school day
• Obtains letters of recommendation from each teacher in the subject area not missed
Is There a Registration Fee?
No. Because all Ohio public and community or nonchartered high school students are required to take the OGT and pass the

tests to receive a high school diploma, no fee is required.
When and Where Is the Test Given?
The OGT is first administered to Ohio high school students in the spring of their tenth-grade year. Makeup testing is offered

a week after administration. Students will have several opportunities to take the OGT in each content area before the end of

their twelfth-grade year. Tests are administered as follows:
• Spring of tenth grade
• Summer between tenth and eleventh grades (optional)
• Fall and spring of eleventh grade
• Summer between eleventh and twelfth grades (optional)
• Fall and spring of twelfth grade
Test Accommodations and Special Situations
Every student in Ohio must take the OGT or an alternative assessment. Every effort is made to provide a level playing field

for students with disabilities taking the OGT and seeking a standard high school diploma. Accommodations are made for

students who meet certain criteria, such as students with disabilities or limited English proficiency.
 A student with significant cognitive disabilities and whose Individual Education Plan requires the student to take a

different test can take the OGT Alternate Assessment for Students with Disabilities. This test measures achievement based on

criteria that reflect the achievement of the individual student. For more information about accommodations and the OGT

Alternate Assessment, go to the Ohio Department of Education website at

www.ode.state.oh.us/proficiency/Alternate_Assessment/default.asp. Students can also ask questions of their school counselors.
Additional Information and Support
Additional resources to help you prepare to take the OGT can be found on the Ohio Department of Education website at

www.ode.state.oh.us/proficiency/OGT/OGT_Website_for_
Students.asp.
How to Use This Book
What Do I Study First?
Read over the review sections and the suggestions for test taking. Studying the review sections thoroughly will reinforce the

basic skills you need to do well on the test. Be sure to take the practice tests to become familiar with the format and

procedures involved with taking the actual OGT.
When Should I Start Studying?
It is never too early to start studying for the OGT. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your

skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to study, because it does now allow you the time needed to

learn the test material. The sooner you learn the format of the exam, the more time you will have to familiarize yourself

with its content.
Format of the OGT
Overview of the OGT
The OGT in reading and writing are designed to test students' abilities to read and write, and also tests their knowledge of

basic literary concepts and familiarity with basic writing strategies. The OGT in reading requires students to answer

thirty-two multiple-choice questions, four short-response questions and two extended-response questions on the reading

process, reading application and vocabulary. Passages on this test may be literary or informational.
 The OGT in writing requires students to compose essays in response to two writing prompts and to answer ten

multiple-choice questions and one short-response question on the writing process.
Scoring of the OGT
On the OGT in reading, each multiple-choice question is worth 1 point, each short-response question is worth 2 points, and

each extended-response question is worth 4 points, for a total of 38 items and 48 possible points.
 Student responses on the OGT in writing are assessed by two readers. Each reader assigns a score of 0 to 6 for

writing applications and a score of 0 to 3 for writing conventions. The scores assigned by each reader are then added

together. Because students are required to respond to two writing prompts, a total of 36 points may be achieved on the

writing prompt portion of the OGT in writing. Additionally, each multiple-choice question is worth 1 point, and the

short-response question is worth 2 points, for a total of 13 items and 48 possible points.
Test-Taking Strategies
What to Do Before the Test
• Pay attention in class.
• Carefully work through the review sections of this book. Mark any topics that you find difficult so you can focus on

them while studying and get extra help if necessary.
• Take the practice tests and become familiar with the format of the OGT. When you are practicing, simulate the

conditions under which you will be taking the actual test. Stay calm and pace yourself. After simulating the test only a

couple of times, you will feel more confident, and this will boost your chances of doing well.
• You can relieve test anxiety, build confidence, and increase test success by being well prepared. A lot of test

anxiety and stress will go away if you keep up with homework assignments and class work. Then, you can focus on the test with

a clearer, more confident mind. It will help to talk to your parents and teachers if you are feeling nervous about this test

or tests in general. They may be able to suggest some useful strategies to help you feel more relaxed so you can do your best

on tests.
What to Do During the Test
• Read all the possible answers. Just because you think you have found the correct response, do not automatically

assume that it is the best answer. Read through each answer choice to be sure that you are not making a mistake by jumping to

conclusions.
• Use the process of elimination. Go through each answer to a question and eliminate as many of the answer choices as

possible. By eliminating two answer choices, you will give yourself a better chance of getting the item correct, because you

will have only two other choices to choose from.
• Work quickly and steadily, and avoid focusing on any one question for too long. Taking the practice tests in this

book will help you learn to budget your time on the actual test.
• Work on the easiest questions first. If you find yourself working too long on one question, make a mark next to it on

your test booklet and continue. After you have answered all the questions you know, go back to the ones you skipped.
• Be sure that the answer oval you are marking corresponds to the number of the question in the test booklet. Because

the multiple-choice sections are graded by machine, marking one wrong answer can throw off your answer key and your score. Be

extremely careful.
• Work from the answer choices. You can use a multiple-choice format to your advantage by working backward from the

answer choices to answer the question. You may be able to make an educated guess after eliminating choices that you know do

not fit the question.

 

Benchmarks of the OGT
Chapters

Benchmarks

Chapter 1: Vocabulary, Part 1

Acquisition of Vocabulary
A.
Use context clues and text structures to determine the meaning of new vocabulary.
D.
Explain how different events have influenced and changed the English language.
E.
Apply knowledge of roots and affixes to determine the meanings of complex words and subject-area vocabulary.
Grade Level Indicators
1.
Define unknown words through context clues and the author's use of comparison, contrast and cause and effect.
4.
Examine and discuss ways historical events have influenced the English language.
5.
Use knowledge of Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes and suffixes to understand complex words and new subject-area

vocabulary (e.g., unknown words in science, mathematics, social studies).
Chapter 2: Vocabulary, Part 2

Acquisition of Vocabulary
C.
Recognize the importance and function of figurative language.
Grade Level Indicators
3.
Infer the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases and discuss the function of figurative language, including

metaphors, similes, idioms and puns.
Reading Applications: Literary Text
F.
Identify and analyze how an author uses figurative language, sound devices and literary techniques to shape plot, set meaning

and develop tone.
Grade Level Indicators
 7.
Recognize how irony is used in a literary text.
 8.
Analyze the author's use of point of view, mood and tone.
 9.
Explain how authors use symbols to create broader meanings.
10.
Describe the effect of using sound devices in literary texts (e.g., to create rhythm, to appeal to the senses or to establish

mood).
11.
Explain ways in which an author develops a point of view and style (e.g., figurative language, sentence structure and tone),

and cite specific examples from the text.
Chapter 3: Main Idea, Theme and Supporting Details

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies
A.
Apply reading comprehension strategies to understand grade-appropriate text.
Grade Level Indicators
1.
Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing,

and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
Reading Applications: Literary Text
E.
Analyze the use of a genre to express a theme or topic.
Grade Level Indicators
6.
Analyze how an author's choice of genre affects the expression of a theme or topic.

Chapter 4: Evaluating Information

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies
A.
Apply reading comprehension strategies to understand grade-appropriate text.
B.
Demonstrate comprehension of print and electronic text by responding to questions (literal, inferential, evaluative and

synthesizing).
Grade Level Indicators
1.
Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing,

and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
2.
Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print

texts and electronic and visual media.
Chapter 5: Author's Purpose

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text
B.
Identify examples of rhetorical devices and valid and invalid inferences, and explain how authors use these devices to

achieve their purposes and reach their intended audiences.
D.
Explain and analyze how an author appeals to an audience and develops an argument or viewpoint in text.
Grade Level Indicators
4.
Assess the adequacy, accuracy and appropriateness of an author's details, identifying persuasive techniques (e.g., bandwagon,

testimonial, transfer, glittering generalities, emotional word repetition, bait and switch) and examples of propaganda, bias

and stereotyping.
5.
Analyze an author's implicit and explicit argument, perspective or viewpoint in text.
6.
Identify appeals to authority, reason and emotion.
8.
Identify the features of rhetorical devices used in common types of public documents, including newspaper editorials and

speeches.
Chapter 6: Literary Texts

Reading Applications: Literary Text
A.
Analyze interactions between characters in literary text and how the interactions affect the plot.
C.
Identify the structural elements of the plot and explain how an author develops conflicts and plot to pace the events in

literary text.
Grade Level Indicators
1.
Compare and contrast an author's use of direct and indirect characterization, and ways in which characters reveal traits

about themselves, including dialect, dramatic monologues and soliloquies.
3.
Distinguish how conflicts, parallel plots and subplots affect the pacing of action in literary text.
7.
Explain how literary techniques, including foreshadowing and flashback, are used to shape the plot of a literary text
8.
Recognize how irony is used in a literary text.
Chapter 7: Nonfiction Texts

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text
A.
Evaluate how features and characteristics make information accessible and usable and how structures help authors achieve

their purposes.
C.
Analyze whether graphics supplement textual information and promote the author's purpose.
Grade Level Indicators
1.
Identify and understand organizational patterns (e.g., cause-effect, problem-solution) and techniques, including repetition

of ideas, syntax and word choice, that authors use to accomplish their purposes and reach their intended audiences.
3.
Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams, cutaways and overlays.
7.
Compare and contrast the effectiveness of the features (e.g., format, sequence, headers) used in various consumer documents

(e.g., warranties, product information, instructional materials), functional or workplace documents (e.g., job-related

materials, memoranda, instructions) and public documents (e.g., speeches, newspaper editorials).


Chapter 8: Writing an Essay

Writing Applications
C.
Produce letters (e.g., business letters, letters to the editor, job applications) that follow the conventional style

appropriate to the text, include appropriate details and exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies.
E.
Write a persuasive piece that states a clear position, includes relevant information and offers compelling evidence in the

form of facts and details.
Grade Level Indicators
3.
Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that do the following:
 a.
Address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear and efficient manner
 b.
Follow the conventional style appropriate to the text, using proper technical terms
 c.
Include appropriate facts and details
 d.
Exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies
 e.
Provide a sense of closure to the writing
4.
Write informational essays or reports, including research, that do the following:
 a.
Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions that engage the reader
 b.
Provide a clear and accurate perspective on the subject
 c.
Create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience and context
 d.
Support the main ideas with facts, details, examples and explanations from sources
 e.
Document sources and include bibliographies
5.
Write persuasive compositions that do the following:
 a.
Support arguments with detailed evidence
 b.
Exclude irrelevant information
 c.
Cite sources of information
Writing Conventions
A.
Use correct spelling conventions.
B.
Use correct punctuation and capitalization.
C.
Demonstrate understanding of the grammatical conventions of the English language.

Grade Level Indicators
1.
Use correct spelling conventions.
2.
Use correct capitalization and punctuation.
3.
Use clauses (e.g., main, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerund, infinitive, participial).
4.
Use parallel structure to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
5.
Use proper placement of modifiers.

 

Presentation on theme: "Narrative Writing Required OGT Writing Prompt Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Narrative Writing Required OGT Writing Prompt Notes

2 What is Narrative Writing? Narrative Writing tells a story or part of a story. ◦Can also be a reflection / exploration of the author’s values – still told as a story. Used in novels, short stories, biographies, autobiographies, historical accounts, essays, poems, and plays. Follows a specific format (just like other types of writing styles – ex. persuasive / expository)

3 Characteristics of a Narrative Plot structure ◦Introduction ◦Rising Action ◦Climax ◦Falling Action ◦Resolution / Conclusion ◦Still a five-paragraph structure – one paragraph dedicated to each of the above is a safe format. Characteristics ◦Conflict ◦Characterization ◦Setting ◦Theme ◦Point of View ◦Sequencing - order ◦Transitions

4 Formatting a Narrative Should include strong description and detail. ◦We want to be able to picture your story happening. The reader should be able to reflect on your story - even retell it, if necessary. Can include dialogue ◦Only if you know how to correctly punctuate it.. Point of view = first person (I, we, us)

5 The Introduction – important! Reveals what type of narrative essay it is ◦Event/recurring activity, personal experience, observation, etc. Should make or support some point / purpose ◦1 st or last sentence is a good place to reveal the point / main idea / purpose

6 Body of the Essay – 3 paragraphs Rising Action / Climax / Falling Action This is where you develop your story, and truly tell the events / experiences that make up the prompt. ◦Keep it focused and connected to the main point / purpose that you set up in the intro. ◦Use strong verbs and vivid language!

7 Resolution / Conclusion Wrap up and finalize the story in this final paragraph. Problems are not truly solved until this point (not during the falling action). Make a final connection back to your main point / purpose ◦Unconsciously remind the reader why this is a story worth reading / why it’s significant…

8 Prewriting a Narrative Divide a piece of paper into 5 squares. Label them as follows: Introduction Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution

9 Narrative Prompt We have all had occasions to feel proud about an achievement. The achievement did not have to be world class. But, at the time, you felt proud. Write about one of those events in which you were truly proud.

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