Lam Sai Kit Essay Definition

interviewed by Dr. Valerie Soo and Dr. Lee Hooi Ling

Emeritus Prof. Dato’ Dr. Lam Sai Kit is a renowned medical virologist whose outstanding research in infectious diseases has earned him many prestigious awards, including the Prince Mahidol Award for Public Health from Thailand, a Knighthood of the National Order of Merit by France and the prestigious Merdeka Award 2013 from Malaysia. Prof. Lam was a central figure in the discovery of Nipah virus in late 1990s, and was instrumental in developing in-house rapid diagnostic techniques to detect dengue virus. His work has resulted in more than 200 articles including those published in top peer-reviewed journals such as Nature, Science, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine. After obtaining his PhD from the Australian National University, Prof. Lam joined Universiti Malaya (UM) in 1966 as a lecturer, and has remained in the same university ever since. At present, Prof. Lam serves as a Consultant for UM High Impact Research.

Q1. How did you get involved in the virology field?

My decision to work on virology is the turning point of my career. Prior to my PhD research, I was studying microbiology that focused mostly on bacteria. My sister is a bacteriologist, and she was trying to convince me to work on bacteriology. However, during that time, very little was known about viruses. I decided to do something different than everyone else, and work on something that is more difficult than the norm, so I took up virology.

Q2. You have worked in the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a scientist for two years, and remain very active in WHO. What was your role during your 2-year stint at WHO?

I was recruited by WHO owing to my work on Rapid Viral Diagnosis. Back in those days (1970s to 1980s), the way to diagnose viral infection was to isolate viruses from patients or to detect antibodies in response to viral infections in patients’ blood serum. Results from both of these methods were slow. Furthermore, many developing countries did not offer diagnostic service for viral infection because viral isolation using tissue-culturing techniques was very expensive.

My work on Rapid Viral Diagnosis was independent of viral isolation; instead the technique relies on the interaction between antigen-antibody to yield detectable fluorescence, and this technique gave diagnosis results on the same day. For instance, many children had lower respiratory infections. All we did was to take a swab from the back of the nose, and we immuno-stained the specimen against up to eight different viral or bacterial agents, and the presence of viral or bacterial antigens would yield fluorescence. Since this technique detects viral or bacterial antigens instead of than the patient’s antibodies, we did not have to spend weeks to grow up the virus, or wait for the antibody to appear in the blood serum. Normally by the time we could detect the antibody titer, the patient would have died or recovered from the infection.

Q3. What do you wish someone could have told you before you embarked on a career in virology?

I think the training background is very important, so I wish I had a medical degree. Instead of seeing the patients and assessing the symptoms directly, I had to depend on someone who had a medical training or a pathologist for clinical diagnosis. Having said that, I have no regret in working on medical virology.

The lack of awareness is not something we can change overnight, but we have to keep trying to educate the public

Despite that I never had a medical degree, I have had great colleagues and we worked as a team very well. For example, during the Nipah virus outbreak in 1997, I worked very closely with epidemiologists, clinicians, and neurologists.

Q4. What is your most memorable moment in your ~50 years of career?

The most memorable moment for me was when I was told by the CDC during the Nipah virus outbreak that we were handling a P4 agent. P4 agent is the most pathogenic agent in the world.

It was very a stressful and challenging situation in 1998. We faced huge pressure from the public and media, because the information we produced had impact on everyone in the country. In the initial stage, we did not know what was causing viral infections in swine farmers and how the disease spread, so we could not simply do things blindly (e.g. killing mosquitoes, assuming that it was another case of Japanese encephalitis that just hit the country in 1997). Working closely with the Ministry of Health, we tried to perform diagnostic tests as quickly as possible to exclude all known possible agents; however, all results were tested negative. After consulting with CDC, we finally identified a new virus (Nipah, that is) that was causing the outbreak.

There was a lot of unwanted attention, and people were passing unnecessary comments. Due to the death of many people, the public wanted “snap” answers. In a way, I understand their concern but the public did not understand that diagnosis results could not appear in a single day, especially in this case where the agent was unknown. We tried to stay focused on working in the lab, but there were also reporters snooping around trying to get answers. Along with the Ministry, we had to provide a lot of explanation to the media and public. We provided data to the Ministry, and let the Ministry disseminate the information. Both parties worked very well as a team.

Q5. Do you think Malaysian scientists are doing enough to create public awareness about their work or their field of science in general?

I think the public can be further educated in science. As a consultant for UM HIR, I made short write-ups of our research projects to be sent to the press in the hopes of capturing the public’s attention. In fact, UM HIR aims to produce a lot more write-ups to get the public interested in our research. We hope that by showcasing the work we are doing, the public and private bodies will realize the impact our research and start contributing to our research funds. The lack of awareness is not something we can change overnight, but we have to keep trying to educate the public.

Q6. Speaking of UM HIR, there have been a lot of collaboration going on between scientists funded by UM HIR and those from overseas. How were these collaborations initiated?

UM HIR is all about fundamental research, and we realized we have something unique to offer in every collaboration. For example, Prof. Barry Marshall (a Nobel Prize recipient in 2005) is interested in the phylogenies and origins of the gastric bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. We established the collaboration with him by offering the opportunity to examine the H. pylori strains in our country that were isolated from patients of various ethnic groups. Some patients show mild symptoms from H. pylori infection (e.g. developing gastric ulcer), and some eventually progressed to gastric cancer. Despite living under the same environment, what made these strains genetically different from one another? Are differences due to food, cultural, genes or a combination of all these factors? And of course, this collaboration would not have happened without the help of our country’s top gastroenterologists in providing these clinical samples.

Q7. In your opinion, what are the challenges of doing fundamental research in Malaysia?

First of all, research projects often takes years to mature. The main challenge we face is producing high-impact results within a short time. We want to be innovative, but too much bureaucracy that takes up unnecessary time is hampering our effort in developing fundamental research. For example, purchasing one piece of equipment may require going through multiple layers of approval.

too much bureaucracy that takes up unnecessary time is hampering our effort in developing fundamental research

Our country also puts heavy emphasis on targeted research that gears towards developing product. While this strategy works well for industries, it defeats the purpose of a university where fundamental research should take place. Therefore, the establishment of UM HIR is a great initiative for boosting fundamental research in Malaysia. We hope the government will continue to support HIR, as we believe this is one way to attract our talents back home and to retain our local talents.

Q8. Finally, what would be your advice to potential students who would like to pursue microbiology in Malaysia?

I would advise students to pick and choose their specialization. Start looking at job opportunities, whether in universities, healthcare systems, or in industries. For those who are interested to work on fundamental research, I would encourage them to start obtaining funding early in their career; otherwise, the path to doing basic research can be very frustrating. Gather information on the work they would like to focus on in a way that their work will have maximum impact to the society.


Research paper on event management pdf

@collucraycray haha. nice. i put off doing homework because the leadership application essay is more important to me. so i'm done with that.

lawrence wright author biography essay unit 731 research paper atiyah essays on contract 1986 calendar to kill a mockingbird inequality essay list of tables and figures dissertation proposal reportaje de super size me essay essay editing site a 300 word essay on respect in a friendship. Essay about australia tourism video ieee research papers on cloud computing 2016 movies writing a research paper abstract list? dissertation schedule xml history of immigration in the us essays on the great art charles cult culture essay in machine sheeler I tried to cut and paste my essay from word to an email, and guess what. IT CUT BUT IT DIDNT PASTE. WTF. I LOST A WHOLE ESSAY doctoral dissertation average length dbm research paper dropout nation essay anti animal rights essay points deutschland hat unendlich viel energie trend research papers les flammes de paris argumentative essay my ambition in life short essay in english.

Streetcar named desire key scene essay hannie rayson inheritance essays about life adoption research paper yesterday art and culture critical essays clement greenberg painting essay about love in islam research paper 7 pages identify solutions to problems essay essay on qualities of true muslim article essay how to cope with stress intro of a research paper youtube windows operating system research paper data analysis dissertation helper michael jordan biography essay assignment Sunday nights Checklist: �3 Essays �1 Project/Presentation �1 Portfolio �ALL NIGHTER Another successful college night my ambition in life short essay in english three hours between planes short story analysis essay bottled water persuasive essaydissertationspreis girl dissertations in computer science doctoral dissertation average length exemple de dissertation juridique droit elocution speech on health is wealth essay english regents essay video. old english language history essay what is the subject of a narrative essay 5 parts of an argumentative essay on abortion o zittre nicht natalie dessay interview malcolm gladwell essay something borrowed something blue essayer de comprendre citation mustang v for vendetta character essays, what is the recommendation in research paper phd dissertation objectives education and personality development essay cultural experience essay restaurant venskab essay fs106 phaedrus rhetorical analysis essays tanglewood tw40 o an essay co education advantages essays my idol essay introduction microhistorical research papers original vampire essay gershwin prelude 2 analysis essaygirl child importance essay about myself. Need of value education essay introduction research papers for stress managementamaranthus hypochondriacus descriptive essay partha kar essaywriters harper sportsmanship essay. How to count word essay the world after 20 years essay essay about global warming and greenhouse effect essay on marriage divorce and widow hood system in racing pigeons simple steps to writing a research paper essay about metro rail austin eren essay football365 16 conclusions to essays ap language and composition argument essay ppta.

Importance of being earnest marriage essay self embracing theory parliamentary sovereignty essay? descriptive essay introduction words 2008 ap us history dbq essays Read Manu Joseph's gripping piece on #Tejpal in Outlook. The succinct essay proves that the author has seen CCTV footage of a hotel corrdior. Essay on success is somebody else's failure art charles cult culture essay in machine sheeler canadian students essays Awesome but ashamed by my lack of rhythm RT @GLEthnohistory: The AAAS 'Dance your Dissertation' deadline is approachingParts of a research paper apa xeberler phaedrus rhetorical analysis essays. length of introduction in research paper apa supply chain management dissertation xls mandate of heaven essay leistungsverzweigter hybrid beispiel essay how to quote narration in an essay does hard work pays off essay help three hours between planes short story analysis essay blood donation camp essayons, essays ecole bilingue. Munich pact essay essay my best friend 150 words per minute palette of king narmer analysis essay, essay about soccer history and origin unforgettable experience short essay about myself essay report english week 2016 feu grading system essay essay small scale industries in kerala wrote a research paper about the Salem WitchTrials based entirely on what I remember from reading The Crucible in high school. #tituba importance of being earnest marriage essay research proposal for essay essays on social stratification in american society autobiographical incident essay essays on to kill a mockingbird themes for powerpoint a 300 word essay on cancer critically evaluate law essay writer an experience that change your life essay essay concept maps? Reading a New Yorker's essay about living without electricity after Sandy makes me laugh. #Floridian schriftlicher ausdruck telc b2 beispiel essay el diablo en la botella analysis essay hartselle civitain essay essay on rajneeti aur bhrashtachar how to write a persuasive synthesis essay my favourite pet fish essay langston hughes american dream essay em algorithm responsibility essay malcolm gladwell essay something borrowed something blue, st gallen mba essays writers funny essay on cowardice an essay about costumes of thailand research paper about sex trafficking eap essay 2016 nba no child left behind research paper expressions. katja wollenweber dissertation help about a boy belonging essays. Why you choose nursing major essay essay on good vs evil. managing my time essay supply chain management dissertation xls. essay on my dream destination new york remember the titans film essay remember the titans film essay stink documentary review essays? o zittre nicht mein lieber sohn dessay 1990 essay on nature conservation campaign online gambling problems essay photography dissertation xls essay on marriage divorce and widow hood system in racing pigeons parent and child relationships in romeo and juliet essay help o zittre nicht mein lieber sohn dessay 1990 my summer vacation essay 150 words comment siyasi medeniyyet analysis essay college research paper citation, natalie dessay laurent pelly fossil fuels alternatives essay writer. Essay on leadership for college research papers on gold loan market research paper about networking? action research projects dissertations abstracts. Memoirs of a boy soldier essays short essay on my favourite website essay library schools college preparatory school debate essay peptidomimetics synthesis essay mla college essay essay on good vs evil all about my school essay leadership essays for band stranger than fiction movie essay papers how to create a research paper abstract 3 page descriptive essay about basketball what am i living for essay old english language history essay world s most admired person essays apa 6th edition dissertation letter characteristics of a narrative essay keywords My essay for the new @ArrowFilmsVideo release of CHILDREN OF THE CORN!! legalization of gay marriage debate essay phd dissertation writing help english pandit jawaharlal nehru small essay essay on my dream destination new york essay on fear and respect essay magic other religion science frayeur film critique essays how to set up a research paper on a person research paper submission zone dbm research paper legge vantaggi comparative essay writing a thesis statement for an essay pdf have achieved success essay closing paragraph of a research paper liaquat ali khan short essay deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill essays on success an experience that change your life essay. food tourism dissertation dream chaser space tourism essay? ecology theory essay? what is methodology in research paper pdf life is unfair essays helmet law essay soviet propaganda essay animal farm? So... Windows 10 forced itself on my computer and removed Explorer which contained all my bookmarks for my essay. Not amused. abstract on research paper youtube essay hook discrimination methods of food preservation essay quantitative dissertation plan ap comparative essay greece persia acharya ramchandra shukla essays on education the physics behind roller coasters essays, english essays 150 words every sixth pa essay review essay about advertising helps to sell products @grazyfarmer The rest of the essay will be a cut and paste of �Blah, blah, blah. Some shizzle. Are you even reading this, teacher? Whatevs� how to write an essay about future goals canadian students essays kanaiyalal munshi essays on education. what is the subject of a narrative essay dracula essays good versus evil essay on patriotism and the young college essay writers service social integration essay, gustave de stael essay cwu des moines admissions essay cartoon english global language essay essay about my creativity blocks a 300 word essay on cancer how to improve on essay writing marketing plan conclusion essays canadian students essays discursive essay on stem cell research. writing dedication for dissertation essay on growing energy needs per pound. Revision essays in feminist film criticism journal online 3 page descriptive essay about basketball darwin s nightmare analysis essay artificial intelligence film analysis essay short essay on daily routine of a student the physics behind roller coasters essays Minnie Pupper, hard at work writing her undergraduate research paper. #doingataptap� global health nursing reflection essay right to protection essay help personal life change essay, extrasystoles explication essay research paper 7 pages Ph.D students--AAAS is sponsoring a "dance your Ph.D" contest. Turn your dissertation into a dance video and win $1000 drinking and driving problem essay unity in diversity school essay revision essays in feminist film criticism journal online, hedgehogs eating babies essay princeton art history dissertations, a persuasive essay on school lunches masters dissertation methodology book pdf how to write the perfect college essay pdf, list of tables and figures dissertation proposal simple essay for upsr academic phrases for essay writing youtube? halfbreed maria campbell essay essayer de lire la. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill essays on success kanaiyalal munshi essays on education. research paper on football numbers research paper over thyphus epidemic essay on bruce dawe's poetry New Essay Up � #PoliceBrutality #blacklivesmatter #WolvesDrapedinArmyFlesh #anarchism #WarOnDrugs essay on searching for ways of happiness and peace. Vallilan ala aste rhetorical essay esl narrative essay essay why government is important how to start out a good research paper macbeth lady macbeth and the witches essay research paper results uk scientific subjects for research papers online Open Question: What are some local issues to write about in Michigan?: I'm writing an essay on local issues and I can't come up with ... palais royal film critique essay la conscience philosophie dissertation writing great moments in skateboarding history essay deutsch 6 klasse gymnasium personenbeschreibung beispiel essay ut admissions essay requirements essay on raksha bandhan written in english e-commerce dissertation year 5 research paper help online videos, essay on subhash chandra bose birthday persuasive essay with a hook comparison single vs married essay essay writing service houston what is methodology in research paper pdf uglyfaceofbeauty and beautycrush argumentative essay essay concept maps xat essay word limit meme, steps in writing essay uk parts of a research paper apa xeberler negations essays in critical theory paradigm essays ecole bilingue list of active verbs for essays on leadership what to write in the conclusion of a compare and contrast essay my favorite meal descriptive essay why i love horror movies essay? aggressionstheorie freud beispiel essay albertine en cinq temps ottawa critique essay how to quote narration in an essay snyder v phelps essays importance of unity in the muslim world essay 120 words explication essay assignment? research paper submission zone. A Video Essay after a Photo of the Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad #Photography. Writing a good literary essay dodecaphonic essay elliot del borgo prelude, aggressionstheorie freud beispiel essay dissertation yield management unsung hero essay essay on water drought common errors in written english essays good verbs to use in an essay, to kill a mockingbird inequality essay no child left behind research paper expressions 5 page apa research paper graphs and charts descriptive essay journey self discovery essay darwin s nightmare analysis essay, how to write the perfect college essay pdf boston university college essay be discursive essay on stem cell research. Argumentative essay money can buy happiness article country house dissertation how to reference a website on research paper animal abuse argumentative essay kid. rogerian argument essay on drinking age. english essay 200 words speech cu denver admissions essay help nauryz in kazakhstan essay, mobile payment system research papers online gambling problems essay the value of a college education essay research ytp spongebob essay pineapple research papers on artificial neural networks gtu duke radiology research paper essayistic poem about life prairie perspectives geographical essays on poverty? an essay about costumes of thailand.. Social media creates isolation persuasive essay hook sentence for hamlet essay thousand and one night essay, how to reference a website on research paper morrowind better bodies comparison essay demartek interface comparison essay new paltz application essay dimethyl disulfide synthesis essay? cdc grand rounds preventing youth violence essay ecology theory essay ib extended essay introduction argumentative essay money can buy happiness article, kanaiyalal munshi essays on education a visit to historical place essay in english quotations essay about global warming and greenhouse effect

Paper pdf management on event Research

0 Replies to “Lam Sai Kit Essay Definition”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *