Essay On Rural Health Care Center

Healthcare Access in Rural Communities

Access to healthcare services is critical to good health, yet rural residents face a variety of access barriers. A 1993 National Academies report, Access to Healthcare in America, defined access as A 2014 RUPRI Health Panel report on rural healthcare access collects additional definitions of access, along with measures that can be used to determine access.

Ideally, residents should be able to conveniently and confidently access services such as primary care, dental care, behavioral health, emergency care, and public health services. According to Healthy People 2020, access to healthcare is important for:

  • Overall physical, social, and mental health status
  • Prevention of disease
  • Detection and treatment of illnesses
  • Quality of life
  • Preventable death
  • Life expectancy

Rural residents often experience barriers to healthcare that limit their ability to obtain the care they need. In order for rural residents to have sufficient healthcare access, necessary and appropriate services must be available and obtainable in a timely manner. Even when an adequate supply of healthcare services exists in the community, there are other factors to consider in terms of healthcare access. For instance, to have good healthcare access, a rural resident must also have:

  • Financial means to pay for services, such as health insurance coverage that is accepted by the provider.
  • Means to reach and use services, such as transportation to services which may be located at a distance, and the ability to take paid time off of work to use such services.
  • Confidence in their ability to communicate with healthcare providers, particularly if the patient is not fluent in English or has poor health literacy.
  • Confidence in their ability to use services without compromising privacy.
  • Confidence in the quality of the care that they will receive.

This guide provides an overview of barriers to healthcare access in rural America and how communities and policymakers can help improve healthcare access for rural residents. The guide includes information on barriers to care, including workforce shortages, health insurance status, distance and transportation, poor health literacy, and the stigma of certain conditions such as mental health or substance abuse issues for those in rural communities.

Frequently Asked Questions


How does the lack of healthcare access affect population health and patient well-being in a community?

Health Status and Health Care Access of Farm and Rural Populations, states that Nonmetropolitan households are more likely to report that the cost of healthcare limits their ability to receive medical care. In more remote counties, patients have to travel long distances for specialized treatment. These patients may substitute local primary care providers for specialists or they may decide to postpone or forego care from a specialist due to the burdens of cost and long travel times.

According to the 2014 report, Access to Rural Health Care - A Literature Review and New Synthesis, barriers to healthcare result in unmet healthcare needs including lack of preventive and screening services, treatment of illnesses, and preventing patients from needing costly hospital care. A vital rural community is dependent on the health of its population. Access to medical care does not guarantee good health; however, access to healthcare is critical for a population's well-being and optimal health.

The challenges that rural residents face in accessing healthcare services contribute to health disparities. To learn more about disparities in health outcomes, see RHIhub's Rural Health Disparities topic guide.


What are barriers to healthcare access in rural areas?

Health Insurance Coverage

Individuals who do not have health insurance have reduced access to healthcare services. An April 2017 issue brief from the Kaiser Family Foundation, The Role of Medicaid in Rural America, reports that 12% of the rural nonelderly population are uninsured, based on an analysis of 2015 American Community Survey data. There is variation between the rates of states that expanded Medicaid (9%) and those that did not (15%).

Health Care Access and Use Among the Rural Uninsured, identifies some key facts on the rural uninsured:

  • Uninsured people face barriers to care compared to people with health insurance coverage.
  • Rural uninsured are more likely to delay or forgo medical care because of the cost of care compared to those with insurance.

According to a June 2016 ASPE issue brief, 43.4% of uninsured rural residents report that they do not have a usual source of care and 26.5% delayed or did not receive care in the previous year due to cost. A 2014 issue brief from the Kaiser Family Foundation points out that the rural uninsured, when compared to their urban counterparts, face greater difficulty accessing care due to the limited supply of rural healthcare providers who offer low-cost or charity healthcare.

The affordability of health insurance is a concern for rural areas. In an August 2016 webinar, Geographic Variation in Health Insurance Marketplaces: Rural and Urban Trends in Enrollment, Firm Participation, Premiums, and Cost Sharing in 2016, researchers from the RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis point out that rural areas tend to have fewer insurance companies offering plans in the Health Insurance Marketplaces. Premium increases tend to be higher where there is less competition among insurers.

Workforce Shortages

Healthcare workforce shortages have an impact on access to care in rural communities. One measure of healthcare access is having a usual source of care. Having an adequate health workforce is necessary to providing that usual source of care. Some health researchers have argued that determining access by simply measuring provider availability is not adequate to fully understand healthcare access. They contend that access measures should include healthcare service use and nonuse. For example, counting people who could not find an appropriate provider of care.

A shortage of healthcare professionals in rural America can limit access to care by limiting the supply of available services. As of May 2017, 57.52% of Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Areas were located in nonmetropolitan areas, according to a HRSA Data Warehouse Preformatted Report. To view the most current figures, select the report

Primary Care HPSAs are scored on a range from 0-25, with higher scores indicating greater need for primary care providers. This November 2017 map highlights nonmetropolitan areas with primary care workforce shortages, with areas in darker green indicating higher nonmetro HPSA scores:

Distance and Transportation

People in rural areas are more likely to have to travel long distances to access healthcare services, particularly specialist services. This can be a significant burden in terms of both time and money. In addition, the lack of reliable transportation is a barrier to care. In urban areas, public transit is generally an option for patients to get to medical appointments; however, these transportation services are often lacking in rural areas. Rural communities also have more elderly residents who have chronic conditions requiring multiple visits to outpatient healthcare facilities. This becomes challenging without available public or private transportation. RHIhub's Transportation to Support Rural Healthcare topic guide has more resources and information about these issues for rural communities.

Social Stigma and Privacy Issues

In rural areas, where there is little anonymity, social stigma and privacy concerns are more likely to act as barriers to healthcare access. Residents may be concerned about seeking care for issues related to mental health, substance abuse, sexual health, pregnancy, or even common chronic illnesses due to unease or privacy concerns. This may be caused by personal relationships with their healthcare provider or others that work within the healthcare facility. In addition, concerns about other residents noticing them utilizing services such as mental healthcare can be a concern. Co-location or integration of behavioral health services with primary care can help.

Poor Health Literacy

Health literacy, which impacts a patient's ability to understand health information and instructions from their healthcare providers, is also a barrier to accessing healthcare. This is a particular concern in rural communities, where lower educational levels and higher incidents of poverty often impact residents. To learn more about low health literacy in rural America, see What are the roles of literacy, health literacy, and educational attainment in the health of rural residents? on RHIhub's Social Determinants of Health for Rural People topic guide.


Why is primary care access important for rural residents?

Primary care is the most basic and, along with emergency services, the most vital service needed in rural communities. Primary care providers offer a broad range of services and treat a wide spectrum of medical issues. The American Academy of Family Physicians characterizes primary care as:

“A primary care practice serves as the patient's first point of entry into the health care system and as the continuing focal point for all needed health care services…Primary care practices provide health promotion, disease prevention, health maintenance, counseling, patient education, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses in a variety of health care settings”

A 2005 Milbank Quarterly article, Contribution of Primary Care to Health Systems and Health, identifies key roles that primary care access plays in preventing disease and improving health. Primary care serves as a first entry point into the health system, which can be particularly important for groups, such as rural residents and racial/ethnic minorities, who might otherwise face barriers to accessing healthcare. Some benefits of primary care access are:

  • Preventive services, including early disease detection
  • Coordination of care
  • Lower all-cause, cancer, and heart disease mortality rates
  • Reduction in low birth weight
  • Improved health behaviors

Access to Quality Health Services in Rural Areas – Primary Care: A Literature Review, a section of the of the 2015 report Rural Healthy People 2020: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2020, Volume 1, provides an overview of the impact primary care access has on rural health. Rural residents may not get the preventive screening that can lead to early detection and treatment of disease. Limited rural access to primary care is also related to poor health outcomes due to chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. The report also identifies rural primary care access for children as a challenge.


What types of healthcare services are frequently difficult to access in rural areas?

Obstetric Services

Closure of Hospital Obstetric Services Disproportionately Affects Less-Populated Rural Counties, an April 2017 policy brief from the University of Minnesota Rural Health Research Center, highlights the challenges rural women face in accessing obstetric (OB) services. Between 2004 and 2014, 179 rural counties lost OB services, due either to the closure of the hospital or of the OB unit, resulting in only 46% of rural counties having in-county hospital OB services. Of the 179 rural counties losing OB services during that period, 150 were noncore counties, leaving just 30% of these counties with OB services.

The 2014 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Health Disparities in Rural Women, reports that Access to delivery and related services is also a concern with the authors reporting that

Obstetric Services and Quality among Critical Access, Rural, and Urban Hospitals in Nine States, a 2013 report on the results of a study to assess the quality of childbirth-related care in different hospital settings, concluded that Critical Access Hospitals performed favorably on obstetric care quality measures when compared to urban hospitals, with some variation across states.

Mental Health Services

Access to mental health providers and services is a challenge in rural areas. As a result, primary care doctors often provide mental health services while facing barriers such as lack of time with patients and adequate financial reimbursement.

As of May 2017, 52.76% of Mental Health Health Professional Shortage Areas were located in nonmetropolitan areas, according to a HRSA Data Warehouse Preformatted Report.

Due to the lack of mental health providers in rural communities, telehealth is increasingly being used to provide services. Mental health services delivered via telehealth has been shown to be effective, as reported in a June 2016 technical brief from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. By using telehealth delivery systems, mental health services can be provided in a variety of local community settings including rural clinics, schools, residential programs, and nursing homes. RHIhub's Telehealth Use in Rural Healthcare topic guide has many more resources on how telehealth can improve access to care. RHIhub's Rural Mental Health topic guide also has additional resources on rural access to mental health services.

A shortage of mental health and substance abuse providers in rural communities has led to new models for providing services using allied behavioral health workers. According to the 2012 report, Behavioral Health Aides: A Promising Practice for Frontier Communities, many states are developing behavioral health aide (BHA) models. Some models of care include:

  • Behavioral health aides as care coordinators
  • Behavioral health aides as support workers
  • Peer counselors and peer specialists
  • Promotoras (or community health workers) with supplemental training in mental health

Oral Health Services

Oral health affects physical health, emotional health, and the ability to get a job, both in urban and rural areas. Despite its importance, access to dental services is very limited or difficult in many rural and remote communities.

One barrier to oral health access is the fact that most health insurance plans do not cover dental services. According to the 2011 National Academies report, Advancing Oral Health in America, a smaller proportion of rural residents have dental insurance compared to urban residents.

Another issue limiting access to dental services is the lack of dental health professionals in rural areas. A June 2015 WWAMI Rural Health Research Center report, Dentist Supply, Dental Care Utilization, and Oral Health Among Rural and Urban U.S. Residents, reports that rural adults used dental services less and had more permanent tooth loss that urban adults, which may be related to the lower supply of dentists in rural areas. The per capita supply of generalist dentists per 100,000 population, based on 2008 data, was 30.1 for metropolitan areas, compared to 21.9 per 100,000 for nonmetro areas.

A 2009 WWAMI RHRC report, The Crisis in Rural Dentistry, offers potential solutions to increase the dental health workforce with the goal of improving access to services including:

  • Providing rural training tracks during dental education.
  • Admitting dental students who have a background in rural areas and who are more likely to practice in a rural community.
  • Providing dental students the opportunities to obtain a broad range of dental skills which will be needed in a rural practice.
  • Helping rural communities recruit and retain oral health providers through local community development programs.

RHIhub's Oral Health in Rural Communities topic guide has more information about oral health disparities in rural America and ways to address those disparities.

Substance Abuse Services

Despite great need, there is a definite lack of substance abuse services offered in many rural communities.

A 2015 American Journal of Alcohol and Drug Abuse article, Rural Substance Use Treatment Centers in the United States: An Assessment of Treatment Quality by Location, reports that rural substance abuse treatment centers, compared to urban centers, had a lower proportion of highly educated counselors. Rural treatment centers also offered fewer wraparound services and specialized treatment tracks.

Detoxification is an initial step in treatment of substance abuse that focuses on withdrawal from the substance, minimizing medical complications that may result. The authors of Few and Far Away: Detoxification Services in Rural Areas report that This geographic distance is a barrier to care that results in patients who might forgo or delay the treatment that they need. In addition, if a rural area does not have a detox provider, that service is often delegated to the local emergency room or the local jail which are not the most appropriate location for detoxification services.

Access to medication-assisted treatment is also limited in rural communities. A WWAMI Rural Health Research Center policy brief reports that 60% of rural counties lacked a physician with a waiver to prescribe buprenorphine as of 2015. Buprenorphine is used to treat opioid use disorder and can be prescribed and monitored in an office-based setting.

RHIhub's Substance Abuse topic guide has model programs for addressing substance abuse treatment in rural areas.


How do rural healthcare facility and service closures impact access to care?

The closure of rural healthcare facilities or the discontinuation of services can have a negative impact on the access to care in the community.

Local rural health systems are fragile; when one provider closes, it can impact care and access across the community. For example, if a surgeon leaves, C-section access declines and obstetric care is jeopardized. If a hospital closes, it may be harder to recruit physicians.

Factors affecting the severity of the impact of a closure may include:

  • Distance to the next closest provider
  • Availability of alternative services
  • Availability of transportation services
  • Socioeconomic and health status of individuals in the community

Traveling to receive services places burden on patients including cost and time. For people with low incomes, no paid time off of their jobs, physical limitations, or acute conditions, these burdens can significantly affect their ability to access care.

A recent increase in rural hospital closures, particularly Critical Access Hospitals, have been in the news frequently, with articles such as Rural Hospital In East Georgia To Close, Citing Economic Pressures and In the Tennessee Delta, a Poor Community Loses Its Hospital — and Sense of Security discussing the negative effects in particular rural communities. A significant concern for rural communities losing their hospital is the loss of emergency services. In emergency situations, any delay in receiving care can have serious adverse consequences.

An April 2015 policy brief from the North Carolina Rural Health Research Program, A Comparison of Closed Rural Hospitals and Perceived Impact, identifies the following potential impacts on healthcare access due to hospital closure:

  • Unstable health services, particularly diagnostic and lab tests, obstetrics, rehabilitation, and emergency medical care
  • Rising emergency medical services costs
  • Residents not receiving needed care or services due to lack of transportation
  • Greater impact on access for the elderly, racial/ethnic minorities, the poor, and people with disabilities

The North Carolina Rural Health Research Program has a list and map of rural hospitals that have closed from January 2010 to the present. Rural health experts believe that rural hospital closures are likely to continue because many rural hospitals have tight operating budgets with little room for financial loss.

The 2013 report, Change in Profitability and Financial Distress of Critical Access Hospitals from Loss of Cost-Based Reimbursement, discusses how changes in reimbursement to Critical Access Hospitals could have a large negative effect on their profitability and financial stability. If more Critical Access Hospitals across the United States close, rural residents will need to travel longer distances to receive care.

Maintaining pharmacy services in rural towns can also be a challenge, particularly when the town's only pharmacist nears retirement. When a community's only pharmacy closes, it creates a void in services to which residents must adapt and find alternate ways to meet their medication needs. According to Causes and Consequences of Rural Pharmacy Closures: A Multi-Case Study:

“Rural residents rely on local pharmacies to provide pharmacy and clinical care management and coordination. The absence of a pharmacy may be disproportionately felt by the rural elderly, who often have a greater need for access to medications and medication management services…Increased distance to the nearest pharmacy may result in decreased access to pharmacy services for this population. Access to medications may be maintained through mail-order, delivery, or telepharmacy; however, providing clinical and in-person consultative services to remote populations may be a challenge.”

What are some strategies to improve access to care in rural communities?

Many strategies are being used to improve access to healthcare in rural areas:

Delivery Models

Two rural healthcare models that have been supported by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP) include:

  • Frontier Extended Stay Clinics (FESC)
    Clinics in frontier communities which help seriously ill patients or injured patients who cannot be immediately transferred to a hospital due to adverse weather conditions or other concerns.
  • Frontier Community Health Integration Program (FCHIP)
    A program to develop and test new models to improve access to quality healthcare services in frontier areas.

Team-based care models, such as Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs), can also extend primary care services in rural communities. Learn more about rural providers using the medical home approach and care coordination.

A June 2017 RUPRI Health Panel report, After Hospital Closure: Pursuing High Performance Rural Health Systems without Inpatient Care, provides case studies of three rural communities that transitioned to new models of care, as well as discussing a range of different delivery options for communities that lack hospital inpatient care.

Affiliation with Larger Systems or Networks

Local rural healthcare facilities may choose to join healthcare networks or affiliate themselves with larger healthcare systems as a strategy to maintain or improve healthcare access in their communities. Doing so may improve the financial viability of the rural facility, provide additional resources and infrastructure for the facility, and allow the facility to offer services it could not otherwise provide. However, the benefits of affiliation with a healthcare network may come at the expense of local control.

A 2014 RUPRI Rural Health Policy Analysis policy brief, Trends in Hospital Network Participation and System Affiliation, 2007-2012, reports that affiliation with other hospitals or healthcare systems may help rural hospitals with the transition to providing value-based care. The same brief notes that rural hospitals are following the general trend in healthcare of greater system affiliation, but not at the same rate as urban hospitals.

Efforts to Improve the Workforce

Having an adequate workforce is necessary to maintain access to healthcare in a community. In order to increase access to care, rural communities can make sure that they are making the best use of all healthcare professionals. This might include allowing each professional to work at the top of their license, using new types of providers, and working in interprofessional teams.

There are many initiatives to increase the qualified healthcare workforce in rural areas. RHIhub's Rural Healthcare Workforce topic guide discusses how rural areas can address these workforce shortages, such as partnering with other healthcare facilities, increasing pay for staff, adding flexibility and incentives to improve recruitment and retention of healthcare providers, and using telehealth services. The guide also discusses state and federal policies and programs to improve the supply of rural health professionals, such as loan repayment programs and visa waivers.

Telehealth

Telehealth is increasingly seen as a key solution to help address rural health access issues. Through telehealth, rural patients can see specialists in a timely manner while staying in their home communities. Local healthcare providers can also benefit from specialists' expertise provided via telehealth. RHIhub's Telehealth Use in Rural Healthcare topic guide provides a broad overview of how telehealth is being used in rural communities to improve healthcare access. Learn about specific programs underway in rural areas, as well as resources and funding that can be used to support telehealth solutions.


What can be done to help rural veterans access healthcare?

One of the primary barriers for rural veterans to access healthcare services is the long travel distance to the nearest Veterans Affairs (VA) health facility. Some veterans do not qualify for certain VA benefits or they are not aware of facilities that are available to them. The VA creates partnerships with local community health facilities to provide telehealth services and also allow veterans to see providers closer to home, such as the Veteran's Choice Program. The VA also works to improve access by using mobile VA clinics and community-based outpatient clinics. To learn what the VA is doing to address Veteran's healthcare access, see RHIhub's Access to Healthcare for Rural Veterans topic guide.


What is different about healthcare access for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians?

According to the Kaiser Family Foundation brief, Health Coverage and Care for American Indians and Alaska Natives, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) face health disparities including high uninsured rates, barriers to accessing care, and poor health status.

Indian Health Service (IHS) provides healthcare and prevention services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. IHS has been historically underfunded to adequately meet the healthcare needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives which has been a barrier to access for this population.

IHS is a provider of healthcare services and is not considered to be healthcare coverage. The National Center for Health Statistics reports, in Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population, that 21.4% of the nonelderly AI/AN population was uninsured in 2015.

AI/ANs are eligible to participate in the Health Insurance Marketplaces under the Affordable Care Act. RHIhub's Rural Tribal Health topic guide has more resources on this topic.


What organizations work to improve rural healthcare access?

Organizations that help meet the needs of rural communities and work to ensure the availability of essential healthcare services include:

In medicine, rural health or rural medicine is the interdisciplinary study of health and health care delivery in rural environments. The concept of rural health incorporates many fields, including geography, midwifery, nursing, sociology, economics, and telehealth or telemedicine.

Research shows that the healthcare needs of individuals living in rural areas are different from those in urban areas, and rural areas often suffer from a lack of access to healthcare. These differences are the result of geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, workplace, and personal health factors. For example, many rural communities have a large proportion of elderly people and children. With relatively few people of working age (20–50 years of age), such communities have a high dependency ratio. People living in rural areas also tend to have poorer socioeconomic conditions, less education, higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use, and higher mortality rates when compared to their urban counterparts.[1] There are also high rates of poverty amongst rural dwellers in many parts of the world, and poverty is one of the biggest social determinants of health.

Many countries have made it a priority to increase funding for research on rural health.[2][3] These efforts have led to the development of several research institutes with rural health mandates, including the Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research in Canada, Countryside Agency in the United Kingdom, the Institute of Rural Health in Australia, and the New Zealand Institute of Rural Health. These research efforts are designed to help identify the healthcare needs of rural communities and provide policy solutions to ensure those needs are met. The concept of incorporating the needs of rural communities into government services is sometimes referred to as rural proofing.

Definitions[edit]

There is no international standard for defining rural areas, and standards may vary even within an individual country.[4][5] The most commonly used methodologies fall into two main camps: population-based factors and geography-based factors. The methodologies used for identifying rural areas include population size, population density, distance from an urban centre, settlement patterns, labor market influences, and postal codes.[6]

The reported number of individuals living in rural areas can vary greatly depending on which set of standards is applied. Canada’s rural population can be identified as anywhere from 22% to 38%,[7] of the population. In the United States the variation is greater; between 17% and 63% of the population may be identified as living in rural areas.[8] The lack of consensus makes it difficult to identify the number of individuals who are in need of rural healthcare services.

Life expectancy[edit]

Studies show that in many parts of the world life expectancy rates are higher in urban areas than in rural areas.[1] There is some evidence to suggest that the gap may be widening in these countries as economic conditions and health education has improved in urban areas.[9]

In Canada, life expectancy in men ranged from 74 years in the most remote areas to 76.8 years in its urban centers. For women, life expectancy was also lowest in rural areas, with an average of 81.3 years. Those living in rural areas adjacent to urban centers also experience higher life expectancies (with men at 77.4 years and women at 81.5 years). Australian life expectancies ranged from 78 years in major cities to 72 years in remote locations.[10] In China, the life expectancy of females is 73.59 years in urban areas and 72.46 in rural areas. Male life expectancy varies from 69.73 years in urban areas and 58.99 in rural areas.[11]

However, there are countries such as the United Kingdom, where life expectancy in rural areas exceeds that of urban areas. Life expectancy there is two years greater for men and one-and-a-half years greater for women in rural areas when compared to urban areas. This may be due, in part, to smaller economic disparities in rural areas as well as an increasing number of well-educated and wealthy individuals moving to rural areas in retirement.[12] This is a significant departure to the rural poverty found in many countries.

Health determinants[edit]

Access to healthcare[edit]

People in rural areas generally have less access to healthcare than their urban counterparts. Fewer medical practitioners, mental health programs and healthcare facilities in these areas often mean less preventative care and longer response times in emergencies. The lack of healthcare workers has resulted in unconventional ways of delivering healthcare to rural dwellers, including medical consultations by phone or internet as well as mobile preventative care and treatment programs. There have been increased efforts to attract health professionals to isolated locations, such as increasing the number of medical students from rural areas and improving financial incentives for rural practices.[13]

Canadians living in rural areas and small towns have access to half as many physicians (1 per 1000 residents) as their urban counterparts. On average, these individuals have to travel five times the distance (an average of 10 km [6.2 mi])to access these services.[14] They also have fewer specialized health care services such as dentists, dental surgeons, and social workers. One study found ambulance service was available in only 40% of the selected sites, blood and Urine testing services in one third of the sites, and only one of the 19 sites had neonatal services. Nursing service had reduced from 26.3% in 1998 to 21.1% in 2005.[15]

The gap in services is due, in part, to the focus of funding on higher-population areas. In China only 10% of the rural population had medical insurance in 1993, compared with 50% of urban residents.[16] In the 1990s, only 20% of the government's public health spending went to the rural health system, which served 70% of the Chinese population.[16] In the United States, between 1990 and 2000, 228 rural hospitals closed, leading to a reduction of 8,228 hospital beds.[17] In 2009, patients living in rural areas of the United States were transferred to other facilities for care at a rate three times higher than that of patients in large central metropolitan areas.[18]

Rural areas, especially in Africa, have greater difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified and skilled professionals in the healthcare field.[19] In Sub-Saharan Africa, urban and more prosperous areas have disproportionately more of the countries’ skilled health care workers.[19] For example, urban Zambia has 20 times more doctors and over five times more nurses and midwives than the rural areas. In Malawi, 87% of its population lives in rural areas, but 96.6% of doctors are found in urban health facilities. Burkina Faso has one midwife per 8,000 inhabitants in richer zones, and one per nearly 430,000 inhabitants in the poorest zone.[19] In South Africa alone, half of their population lives in rural areas, but only 12% of doctors actually practice there.[20] One solution has been to develop programs designed to train women to perform home-based health care for patients in Rural Africa. One such program is African Solutions to African Problems (ASAP).[21]

Working conditions[edit]

Rural areas often have fewer job opportunities and higher unemployment rates than urban areas. The professions that are available are often physical in nature, including farming, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, and mining.[22][23] These occupations are often accompanied by greater health and safety hazards due to the use of complex machinery, exposure to chemicals, working hours, noise pollution, harsher climates, and physical labor. Rural work forces thus report higher rates of life-threatening injuries.[24][25]

Personal health[edit]

Lifestyle and personal health choices also affect the health and expected longevity of individuals in rural areas. Persons from rural areas report higher rates of smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, and obesity than those in urban areas. Additionally, rural areas often have low rates of fruits and vegetable consumption even where farming is prevalent.[1]

While homicide rates are lower in rural areas, death by injury, suicide and poisoning are significantly more prevalent.[26][27] The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare also reports higher rates of interpersonal violence in rural communities.[10]

Physical environment[edit]

In many countries a lack of critical infrastructure and development in rural areas can impair rural health. Insufficient wastewater treatment, lack of paved roads, and exposure to agricultural chemicals have been identified as additional environmental concerns for those living in rural locations.[28] The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare reports lower water quality and increased crowding of households as factors affecting disease control in rural and remote locations.[10]

A Renewed Focus on Rural Health Worldwide[edit]

National Systems[edit]

Since the mid-1980s, there has been increased attention on the discrepancies between healthcare outcomes between individuals in rural areas and those in urban areas. Since that time there has been increased funding by governments and non-governmental organizations to research rural health, provide needed medical services, and incorporate the needs of rural areas into governmental healthcare policy.[29][30] Some countries have started rural proofing programs to ensure that the needs of rural communities, including rural health, are incorporated into national policies.[31][32]

Research centers (such as the Center for Rural and Northern Health Research at Laurentian University, the Center for Rural Health at the University of North Dakota, and the RUPRI Center) and rural health advocacy groups (such as the National Rural Health Association, National Organization of State Offices of Rural Health, National Rural Health Alliance) have been developed in several nations to inform and combat rural health issues.[33]

In Canada, many provinces have started to decentralize primary care and move towards a more regional approach. The Local Health Integration Network was established in Ontario in 2007 order to address the needs of the many Ontarians living in rural, northern, and remote areas.[34] In China, a US $50 million pilot project was approved in 2008 to improve public health in rural areas.[35] China is also planning to introduce a national health care system.

World Health Organization[edit]

The WHO has done many studies on rural health statistics including for example, showing that urban heath centers score significantly higher in service readiness than rural health centers, and the population of health workers across India where on can see the comparative numbers of workers in urban vs rural areas. [36][37]Research studies like these exemplify the major problems needing attention in rural health systems and help lead to more impactful improvement projects.[38]

The WHO also works on evaluation health system improvements and proposing better health system improvements. An article published in March of 2017 highlighted the large improvement to be made in the Solomon Islands health system in a plain laid out by the Ministry of Health and Medical Services, supported by the WHO. These large scale changes move to bring health services need by the rural population "closer to home".[39]

Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs)[edit]

Lack of government intervention in failing health systems has led to the need for NGOs to fill the void in many rural health care systems. NGOs create and participate in rural health projects worldwide.

Rural Health Projects[edit]

Rural health improvement projects world wide tend to focus on finding solutions to the three basic problems associated with a rural health system. These problems center around communication, transportation of services and goods, and lack of doctors, nurses, and general staff. [40]

Many rural health projects in poor areas that lack access to basic medical help like clinics or doctors use non traditional methods for providing health care. [41][42] Approaches like Hesperian Health Guides book, Where There is No Doctor and World Hope International's app, mBody Health, have been shown to increase health awareness and provide additional health resources to rural communities.[42][43]

An evaluation of a community organizing, mother and infant health program called the Sure Start project in rural India showed that community organization around maternal and infant health improvement lead to actual improvement in the health of the mother. The evaluation also showed that these community based programs lead to increased use of health services by the mothers.[44]

In the United States, the Health Resources and Services Administration funds the Rural Hospital Performance Improvement Project to improve the quality of care for hospitals with fewer than 200 beds.[45]Eula Hall founded the Mud Creek Clinic in Grethel, Kentucky to provide free and reduced-priced healthcare to residents of Appalachia. In Indiana, St. Vincent Health implemented the Rural and Urban Access to Health to enhance access to care for under-served populations, including Hispanic migrant workers. As of December 2012, the program had facilitated more than 78,000 referrals to care and enabled the distribution of US $43.7 million worth of free or reduced-cost prescription drugs.[46] Owing to the challenges of providing rural healthcare services worldwide, the non-profit group [Remote Area Medical] began as an effort to provide care in third-world nations but now provide services primarily in the US.

Telemedicine and rural health[edit]

For residents of rural areas, the lengthy travel time and distance to larger, more developed urban and metropolitan health centers present significant restrictions on access to essential health care services. Telemedicine has been suggested as a way of overcoming transportation barriers for patients and health care providers in rural and geographically isolated areas. According to the Health Resources Services Administration, telemedicine may be defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunication technologies to support long-distance healthcare and clinical relationships.[47][48] Relevant literature notes that telemedicine provides clinical, education, and administrative benefits for rural areas.[49][50] First, telemedicine eases the burden of clinical services by the utilization of electronic technology in the direct interaction between health care providers, such as primary and specialist health providers, nurses, and technologists and patients in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diseases and illnesses.[51] Secondly, the advantage of telemedicine on educational services includes the delivery of healthcare related lectures and workshops through video and tele-conferencing, practical simulations, and web casting. In rural communities, medical professionals may utilize pre-recorded lectures for medical or health care students at remote sites.[49][50] Also, healthcare practitioners in urban and metropolitan areas may utilize teleconferences and diagnostic simulations to assist understaffed healthcare centers in rural communities diagnose and treat patients from a distance.[51] In a study of rural Queensland health systems, more developed urban health centers used video-conferencing to educate rural physicians on treatment and diagnostic advancements for breast and prostate cancer, as well as various skin disorders, such as eczema and chronic irritations.[51] Thirdly, telemedicine may pose significant administrative benefits to rural areas.[49] Not only does telemedicine aid in the collaboration among health providers with regard to the utilization of electronic medical records, but telemedicine may pose benefits for interviewing medical professionals in remote areas for position vacancies and the transmission of necessary operation-related information between rural health systems and larger, more developed healthcare systems.[50][51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcHow healthy are Rural Canadians? An Assessment of Their Health Status and Health Determinants(PDF). Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information. 2006. ISBN 978-1-55392-881-2. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2010-03-08. 
  2. ^"Healthy Horizons- Outlook 2003-2007: A Framework for Improving the Health of Rural, Regional, and Remote Australians"(PDF). Australian Health Ministries’ Advisory Council’s National Rural Health Policy Sub-committee and the National Rural Health Alliance for the Australian Health Minister’s Conference. National Rural Health Alliance. 2003. ISBN 07308 56844. 
  3. ^Ministerial Advisory Council on Rural Health (2002). "Rural Health in Rural Hands: Strategic Directions for Rural, Remote, Northern and Aboriginal Communities"(PDF). Ottawa: Health Canada. 
  4. ^"Population density and urbanization". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  5. ^Pong, R. W.; Pitbaldo, R, J (2001). "Don't take "geography" for granted! Some methodological issues in measuring geographic distribution of physicians". Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 6: 105. 
  6. ^Pitblado, JR (March 2005). "So, what do we mean by "rural," "remote" and "northern"?". The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. 37 (1): 163–8. PMID 15887771. 
  7. ^du Plessis, V.; Beshiri, R.; Bollman, R.; Clemenson, H. (2001). "Definitions of Rural"(PDF). Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin. 3 (3). 
  8. ^"Rural Definitions: Data Documentation and Methods". United-States Department of Agriculture. 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  9. ^Stephens, Stephanie. "Gap in Life Expectancy Between Rural and Urban Residents Is Growing". Center for Advancing Health. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  10. ^ abc"Rural, regional, and remote health: Indicators of health". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2005. ISBN 9781740244671. Retrieved February 19, 2008. 
  11. ^Shen, J (February 1993). "Analysis of urban-rural population dynamics of China: a multiregional life table approach". Environment & Planning. 25 (2): 245–53. doi:10.1068/a250245. PMID 12286564. 
  12. ^Ramesh, Randeep (25 May 2010). "Country dwellers live longer, report on 'rural idyll' shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  13. ^Rourke, J. (2008). "Increasing the number of rural physicians". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 178: 322–325. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070293. PMC 2211345. PMID 18227453. 
  14. ^Ng, E.; Wilkins, R.; Pole, J.; Adams, O. (1999). "How far to the nearest physician". Rural and Small Town Analysis Bulletin. 1: 1–7. 
  15. ^Halseth, G.; Ryser, L. (2006). "Trends in service delivery: Examples from rural and small town Canada, 1998 to 2005". Journal of Rural and Community Development. 1: 69–90. 
  16. ^ abBrant, S.; Garris, M.; Okeke, E.; Rosenfeld, J. (2006). "Access to Care in Rural China: a Policy Discussion"(PDF). The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan: 1–19. Retrieved February 27, 2009. 
  17. ^"Trends in rural hospital closure 1990–2000"(PDF). U.S Department of Health and Human Services. 2003. Retrieved February 19, 2008. 
  18. ^Kindermann, D; Mutter, R; Pines, JM (February 2006). "Emergency Department Transfers to Acute Care Facilities, 2009: Statistical Brief #155". PMID 24006549. 
  19. ^ abc"Health Workers Needed: Poor Left Without Care in Africa's Rural Areas". The World Bank. 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009. 
  20. ^"Bring Health Care Services to Rural Africa". The Atlantic Philanthropies. 2012. Retrieved Dec 13, 2013. 
  21. ^"Health". African Solutions to African Problems. 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
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  23. ^U.S Congress, 1991
  24. ^Gerberich S.G.; Gibson, R.W.; French, L.R.; Lee, T.Y.; Carr, W.P.; Kochevar, L.; Renier, C.M.; Shutske, J. (1998). "Machinery-related injuries: Regional Rural Injury Study-I (RRIS-I)". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 30 (6): 93–804. PMID 9805522. 
  25. ^Pickett, W.; Hartling, L.; Brison, R. J.; Guernsey, J. R.; Program (1999). "Fatal work-related farm injuries in Canada, 1991-1995". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 160 (13): 1843–1848. PMC 1230438. PMID 10405669. 
  26. ^Walsh, Bryan (23 July 2013). "In Town vs. Country, It Turns Out That Cities Are the Safest Places to Live". Time. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  27. ^Butterfield, Fox (13 February 2005). "Social Isolation, Guns and a 'Culture of Suicide'". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  28. ^Aday, L. A.; Quill, B. E.; Reyes-Gibby, C. C. (2001). "Equity in rural health and health care". In Loue, Sana; Quill, B.E. Handbook of Rural Health. New York City: Kluwer Academic-Penum Publishers. pp. 45–72. ISBN 9780306464799. 
  29. ^"A New Era of Responsibility"(PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. 
  30. ^Humphreys, J; Hegney, D; Lipscombe, J; Gregory, G; Chater, B (February 2002). "Whither rural health? Reviewing a decade of progress in rural health". The Australian Journal of Rural Health. 10 (1): 2–14. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1584.2002.00435.x. PMID 11952516. 
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  32. ^"What makes rural New Zealand different". Ministry for Primary Industries. Government of New Zealand. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  33. ^Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion(PDF). First International Conference on Health Promotion. World Health Organization. November 21, 1986. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 18, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  34. ^"Population health profile: North East LHIN"(PDF). North Bay, Ontario: North East LHIN: North East Local Health Integration Network. 2006. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
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  39. ^"Health closer to home: transforming care in the Solomon Islands". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  40. ^Strasser, Roger (2003-08-01). "Rural health around the world: challenges and solutions*". Family Practice. 20 (4): 457–463. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmg422. ISSN 0263-2136. 
  41. ^Weisgrau, Sheldon (1995). "Issues in Rural Health: Access, Hospitals, and Reform". Health Care Financing Review. 17 (1): 1–14. ISSN 0195-8631. 
  42. ^ abBabu, Elizabeth (2010-03-03). "Where There Is No Doctor". JAMA. 303 (9). doi:10.1001/jama.2010.244. ISSN 0098-7484. 
  43. ^Hebert, E.; Ferguson, W.; McCullough, S.; Chan, M.; Drobakha, A.; Ritter, S.; Mehta, K. (October 2016). "mBody health: Digitizing disabilities in Sierra Leone". 2016 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC): 717–724. doi:10.1109/GHTC.2016.7857357. 
  44. ^Acharya, Arnab; Lalwani, Tanya; Dutta, Rahul; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Ruducha, Jenny; Varkey, Leila Caleb; Wunnava, Sita; Menezes, Lysander; Taylor, Catharine; Bernson, Jeff (13 November 2014). "Evaluating a Large-Scale Community-Based Intervention to Improve Pregnancy and Newborn Health Among the Rural Poor in India". American Journal of Public Health. 105 (1): 144–152. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302092. ISSN 0090-0036. 
  45. ^"Challenges Facing Rural Health Care: A Conversation With Brock Slabach, Senior Vice President for Member Services at the National Rural Health Association". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-04-17. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  46. ^"Field-Based Outreach Workers Facilitate Access to Health Care and Social Services for Underserved Individuals in Rural Areas". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-13. 
  47. ^Telehealth use in Rural Healthcare. Rural Health Information Hub website. https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/topics/telehealth Published October 2011. Updated August 7, 2017. Accessed February 15, 2018.
  48. ^Rural Health. HealthIT.gov Website. http://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/frequently-asked-questions/487#id157 Accessed November 3, 2014.
  49. ^ abcSmith, A., Bensink, M., Armfield, N., Stillman, J.,& Caffery, L. Telemedicine and rural health care applications. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 2005; 51: 286-293.
  50. ^ abcMcCrossin R. Successes and failures with grand rounds via videoconferencing at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare.2001;7:25-8.
  51. ^ abcdHornsby D. Videoconference Usage Report: May 2000. Brisbane: Queensland Telemedicine Network (Queensland Health);2000

Further reading[edit]

  • Strong; et al. (1998). "Health in rural and remote Australia: The first report of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on rural health". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  • "Remoteness classifications". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  • Beshri, R.; Alfred, E. (2002). "Immigrants in rural Canada". 4. Ottawa: Statistic Canada. 
  • "Canadian rural population trends"(PDF). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Publication. Canadian Rural Partnership Research and Analysis (2138/E). 2002. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 26, 2003. 
  • "China's rural population shrinks to 56% of the population". Peoples Daily Online. 2007. Retrieved February 27, 2009. 
  • Countryside and Community Research Unit (2003). "The demography of rural areas: A literature review"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on July 9, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2008. 
  • Countryside Agency (2002). "Rural Proofing – Policy Makers' Checklist"(PDF). Wetherby, UK: Countryside Agency Publications. 
  • Department of Primary Industries and Energy & Department of Human Services and Health (1994). "Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Areas Classification 1991 Census Edition"(PDF). Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  • "Rural and Urban Area Classification Collection". Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  • Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (2005). "Defra Classification of Local Authority Districts and Unitary Authorities in England: An Introductory Guide"(PDF)
Village elders participate in a training for rural health care workers in Ethiopia.
Telemedicine consult: Dr. Juan Manuel Romero, a cardiologist in Sonora, Mexico, engages in a pre-op consultation with Alma Guadalupe Xoletxilva, who is 640 km (400 mi) away in La Paz, Baja California. Telemedicine helps deliver care to patients in rural and remote areas.

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